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The Industrial Revolution

New shows?

The development of the Industrial Revolution and the growth of cities brought in the emergence of new social classes. Within this new division the so-called bourgeoisie, a high middle-class inflenced by Illustration which showed interest for culture.

This resulted in the appearance of new and more affordable music-theatre shows in which songs and other compositions were created and disseminated, forming a new trend that was known as popular urban music.

Fred Freild – Champagne Charlie (2016)

This is a version of the song composed by Alfred Lee and George Leybourne. It succeeded in the music hall, a very admired show in the 19th century that mixed popular songs, comedies and dancing.

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Journalist and music critic Marcel Chabrier had the opinion that popular urban music was born as a result of the sinthesis of all those shows that were not considered tobe theatrical. These were often performed in places like pubs, gardens and dancing halls in London, or in Parisian theatres and café-concerts. The first shows of this kind were ballad opera and the music hall in the UK, the variety theatre and vaudeville in France, and some time later the minstrel show in the United States.

Are there any other formats?

During the next decades of the 19th century, new formats that arose primarily from the variety theatre would joined the previously mentioned shows. This way, new music genres like the cabaret, the magazine, the burlesque, etc. were born.  

In the second half of the 19th century, light opera or operetta also gained strength, first in Paris, then in Vienna and London. In Spain, the genre of operetta was also practiced under the name of zarzuela.

Státna filharmónica Košice – Galop infernal (2015)

This is a Version of a song composed by Jacques Offenbach for his operetta Orpheus in the Infernos. First performed in 1858, it was an irreverent parody of Christoph von Gluck's Orpheus and Eurydice.

Don Quichotte et Sancho Pança, composed in 1847 by Louis-Auguste-Florimond Ronger, known as Hervé, is considered the first operetta. Later, in 1855, the German naturalized Frenchman, Jacques Offenbach, took the direction of the theater of the Bouffes Parisiens, where he created and premiered well-known operettas, such as Orpheus in Hell, which adopted the dance of the cancan. Imitating the Parisian taste, the operetta arrived in Vienna where they had the waltzes of the Strausses, father (Johann Strauss I) and son (Johann Strauss II).

New division?

As the popular urban music expanded, there was another division towards the end of the 19th century. Thus, music belonging to the culture of nations or specific ethnicities were labelled as traditional or folk music.

In the meanwhile, the rest of new genres which were mostly urban and which had crossed boundaries to transform into the expression of a new cospomopolitan and universal culture, were labelled as popular music.

La Jambre – El terebol (2007)

Adaptation of a traditional puja song by an unknown author that has been integrated into the Christmas cycle. There are different versions, being very popular those from Madrid and Jaén.

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La Jambre is a traditional music group formed in Jerez de la Frontera, in 2003. Considered one of the best folk music bands in Europe, they try to recover and update the traditional Andalusian music that coexisted with flamenco until it was displaced by it. This music, mostly sung, was performed in an infinite number of celebrations and festivities. Its great melodic richness and the varied subject matter of its lyrics denotes its ancestral origin and its origin from various cultures.

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